Seneca the Younger’s Apocolocyntosis: A Correction

The Apocolocyntosis (“pumpkinification”) is a first-century political satire of Emperor Claudius attributed to Seneca the Younger. SBLHS incorrectly lists the work as Apolocyntosis, which results in the incorrect abbreviation Apol. The correct form of the work and abbreviation should be as follows: Apocol. Apocolocyntosis A translation of the work by W. H. D. Rouse … Continue reading Seneca the Younger’s Apocolocyntosis: A Correction


The term progymnasmata (“preliminary/preparatory exercises”) refers to a series of compositional exercises that taught students in antiquity how to write and deliver declamations (speeches). The exercises educated students in the use of various elements of effective rhetoric, including “μῦθος (*fable), διήγημα (*narrative), χρεία (anecdotal apophthegm), γνώμη (maxim…), ἀνασκευή and κατασκευή (refutation and confirmation), κοινὸς τόπος … Continue reading Progymnasmata

Polybius of Megalopolis

The Greek historian Polybius of Megalopolis (second century BCE) wrote a number of historical works, including his Histories, a Life of Philopoemen, A Treatise on Tactics, and a History of the Numantine War. Of these, only his Histories survives. To cite Polybius’s Histories, one should use the following abbreviation: Hist. Polybius, Historiae Note that, as … Continue reading Polybius of Megalopolis

Diodorus Siculus

Diodorus Siculus was a first-century BCE Greek historian. He is best known for his work Bibliotheca historica (Library of History). It is common to encounter references with only Diodorus Siculus’s name but not his work. However, to maintain consistency with other ancient references with an identifiable author, we recommend that authors list Diodorus Siculus’s name … Continue reading Diodorus Siculus

Plutarch’s Moralia

SBLHS 2 § advises authors to follow a simple pattern when citing ancient works: first provide the number designation that is original to the work, then “any secondary numerical identification supplied by the standard critical edition (or by another edition whose numbering is widely followed).” SBLHS offers a number of examples illustrating this principle, including … Continue reading Plutarch’s Moralia

Abbreviating “Epistle”

The SBLHS 2 recommends that readers use the abbreviation “Ep.” when epistula(e) appears within an abbreviated title (see SBLHS 2 § For example: John Chrysostom Ep. carc. Epistula ad episcopos, presbyteros et diaconos in carcere Ep. Cyr. Epistula ad Cyriacum 1 Ep. Innoc. Ad Innocentium papam epistula I 2 Ep. Innoc. Ad Innocentium papam epistula … Continue reading Abbreviating “Epistle”


The fifth-century BCE historian Thucydides is known for his History of the Peloponnesian War (Historia belli peloponnesiaci). Because this classic work is Thucydides’s sole surviving work, some scholars choose to reference the work by Thucydides’s name alone: (Thucydides, 2.2) However, to maintain consistency with other ancient references with an identifiable author, we recommend that readers … Continue reading Thucydides