Titles with Question Marks

Titles that end in a question mark require special attention.

1. When a title ends in a question mark, do not add a colon before the subtitle either in a note or in a bibliographical entry (CMS §14.105).

15. Bailey, Randall C., Tat-siong Benny Liew, and Fernando F. Segovia, eds. They Were All Together in One Place? Toward Minority Biblical Criticism, SemeiaSt 57 (Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature, 2009).

Bailey, Randall C., Tat-siong Benny Liew, and Fernando F. Segovia, eds. They Were All Together in One Place? Toward Minority Biblical Criticism. SemeiaSt 57. Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature, 2009.

2. When the title would normally be followed by a period, do not add the period (CMS §14.105).

21. This argument is demonstrated in Bailey, Liew, and Segovia, They Were All Together in One Place?

3. When the title is followed by any other punctuation, keep the punctuation required by the surrounding text (CMS §14.105). Although the question mark will remain italicized as part of the title, the following punctuation should not be italicized.

Groundbreaking in this regard was the volume They Were All Together in One Place?, which was edited by Randall Bailey, Tat-siong Benny Liew, and Fernando F. Segovia.

25. Bailey, Liew, and Segovia, They Were All Together in One Place?, 56–58.

Suomen Eksegeettisen Seuran julkaisuja

The Finnish Exegetical Society publishes the series Suomen Eksegeettisen Seuran julkaisuja (Eng.: Publications of the Finnish Exegetical Society). Following Schwertner (2014), we recommend using the Finnish title for the series and its corresponding abbreviation:

SESJ Suomen Eksegeettisen Seuran julkaisuja

If for some reason the English must be used, the following abbreviation is appropriate:

PFES Publications of the Finnish Exegetical Society

For a full list of SESJ volumes, see here.

Work Cited

Schwertner, Siegfried M. 2014. Internationales Abkürzungsverzeichnis für Theologie und Grenzgebiete. 3rd ed. Berlin: de Gruyter.

Hyphenated Compounds in Titles

In a previous post, we discussed which words should be capitalized in bibliographic references. Hyphenated compounds require special attention (see CMS §8.159).

The first element of a hyphenated compound is always capitalized. The second and subsequent elements are capitalized if one of the following conditions applies:

1. The first element is an independent word (as opposed to a prefix; see below)

 Example: Social-Scientific Approaches to New Testament Interpretation

 2. The second element is a proper noun or adjective.

 Example: The Non-Israelite Nations in the Book of the Twelve

 3. The two elements together constitute a spelled-out number.

Example: “The Twenty-Third Psalm in Book 1 of the Psalter”

 If the first element of the hyphenated compound is a prefix, the second and subsequent elements are typically lowercased, unless (2) above applies.

 Example: The Acts of the Apostles: A Socio-rhetorical Commentary

 N.B. Although SBL Press style is not to hyphenate words such as sociorhetorical, one must retain any hyphenation used in the original publication.

Nag Hammadi and Manichaean Studies

In the late 1990s, Brill’s Nag Hammadi Studies series became the Nag Hammadi and Manichaean Studies series. Although volumes under the new name continue the numbering sequence of the original series, we recommend that authors use different abbreviations to distinguish the two series:

NHS Nag Hammadi Studies
NHMS Nag Hammadi and Manichaean Studies

NOTE: NHS is incorrectly italicized in the SBLHS 2 §8.4.2. As a series, the abbreviation should be in roman font.

For a list of NHS volumes, see here.

For a list of NHMS volumes, see here.

Title Case

In bibliographic references, the following words should be lowercase in book, article, and paper titles unless they appear as the first word of the title or subtitle (SBLHS 2 §6.1.3.3; see CMS §8.157):

 1. Articles

a

an

das

der

die

ein

eine

l’

la

le

les

the

un

Example:

La Violencia and the Hebrew Bible: The Politics and Histories of Biblical Hermeneutics on the American Continent

 2. Coordinating Conjunctions

and

but

for

nor

Example:

Transgender, Intersex, and Biblical Interpretation

 3. Prepositions (regardless of length)

according to

after

before

by

between

down

in

to

through

up

with

Examples:

Hidden Truths from Eden: Esoteric Readings of Genesis 1–3

Last Stop before Antarctica: The Bible and Postcolonialism in Australia

Mark, Mutuality, and Mental Health: Encounters with Jesus

Political Memory in and after the Persian Empire

Teaching the Bible through Popular Culture and the Arts

4. Special Cases

Lowercase “as” regardless of its function and lowercase “to” even when it is used in an infinitive construction.

Examples:

Colossians: Encouragement to Walk in All Wisdom as Holy Ones in Christ

Reading Law as Narrative: A Study in the Casuistic Laws of the Pentateuch

Although they are short, the following words should be capitalized in bibliographic references:

 Be

His

Her

Is

Its

Not

Than

That

This

Examples:

Discourse Analysis of Biblical Literature: What It Is and What It Offers

Jesus the Central Jew: His Times and His People

Let the Words Be Written: The Lasting Influence of Eugene A. Nida

Reading Other-wise: Socially Engaged Biblical Scholars Reading with Their Local Communities

Translation That Openeth the Window: Reflections on the History and Legacy of the King James Bible

Thucydides

The fifth-century BCE historian Thucydides is known for his History of the Peloponnesian War (Historia belli peloponnesiaci). Because this classic work is Thucydides’s sole surviving work, some scholars choose to reference the work by Thucydides’s name alone:

(Thucydides, 2.2)

However, to maintain consistency with other ancient references with an identifiable author, we recommend that readers use the following abbreviation:

P.W. History of the Peloponnesian War

References to the work should include Thucydides’s name, an abbreviation for the work, and the specific part of the text being referenced:

(Thucydides, P.W. 2.2)

Peloponnesian War comprises eight books, each of which is further subdivided into chapters and sections. The example above cites chapter 2 of book 2; to cite section 4 of chapter 2, one would write: Thucydides, P.W. 2.2.4.

When an English translation of the work is quoted, the translator’s name should be included in brackets (see SBLHS 2 §6.4.2):

(Thucydides, P.W. 2.2 [Smith])

The Greek text and English translations of Peloponnesian War are available online at the Perseus Collection.

HTS Teologiese Studies/Theological Studies

Hervormde Teologiese Studies (better known as HTS Teologiese Studies/Theological Studies) is an international, online, open-access journal currently owned by the Netherdutch Reformed Church of Africa. In order to avoid confusing the journal with the Harvard Theological Studies series (abbr. HTS), we recommend the following abbreviation (see SBLHS 2 §§8.4.1, 8.4.2; Schwertner 2014):

HvTSt Hervormde Teologiese Studies (HTS Teologiese Studies/HTS Theological Studies)

The journal was founded in 1943 and therefore has a long history of published articles. Prior to 2009, articles included page numbers that ran sequentially through the journal volume. These pre-2009 articles should be cited as other journal articles with a print counterpart:

15. Jerome H. Neyrey, “Spaced Out: ‘Territoriality’ in the Fourth Gospel,” HvTSt 58 (2002): 632–63, doi: 10.4102/hts.v58i2.568.

Neyrey, Jerome H. “Spaced Out: ‘Territoriality’ in the Fourth Gospel.” HvTSt 58 (2002): 632–63. doi: 10.4102/hts.v58i2.568.

Since articles are numbered sequentially throughtout the entire volume, one does not need to include the issue number (see SBLHS 2 §6.3.1). The DOI (digital object identifier) is optional.

Beginning in 2009, volumes ceased to include sequential page numbers, instead including an article number and internal article page numbers. Post-2009 articles should therefore be cited as electronic journal articles without a print counterpart, including the volume number, issue number, article number, internal page numbers (in footnotes), and doi (SBLHS 2 §§6.3.10, 6.4.15):

16. Christo Lombaard, “Theological Education, Considered from South Africa: Current Issues for Cross-Contextual Comparison,” HvTSt 72.1 (2016): art. 2851, p. 1. doi: 10.4102/hts.v72i1.2851.

Lombaard, Christo. “Theological Education, Considered from South Africa: Current Issues for Cross-Contextual Comparison.” HvTSt 72.1 (2016): art. 2851. doi: 10.4102/hts.v72i1.2851.

The electronic archive for the journal can be found here.

Work Cited

Schwertner, Siegfried M. 2014. Internationales Abkürzungsverzeichnis für Theologie und Grenzbegiete. 3rd ed. Berlin: de Gruyter.