Citing Reference Works 3: Dictionaries (Word)

Titling this post is difficult, since there is no unambiguous term for a reference work that offers prose discussions of a word or group of related words. This blog series uses the term lexicon to refer to a dictionary-type work that presents, generally in list form, a simple definition of the term, grammatical notes, and, … Continue reading Citing Reference Works 3: Dictionaries (Word)

Citing Reference Works 2: Lexica

The previous post (here) laid the foundation for the discussions to follow by identifying three sets of distinctions: entries versus articles; signed versus unsigned pieces; and an authored versus an edited work. In terms of those distinctions, this post on lexica (the preferred plural of lexicon) pertains to dictionary-type works containing unsigned entries in both … Continue reading Citing Reference Works 2: Lexica


The term progymnasmata (“preliminary/preparatory exercises”) refers to a series of compositional exercises that taught students in antiquity how to write and deliver declamations (speeches). The exercises educated students in the use of various elements of effective rhetoric, including “μῦθος (*fable), διήγημα (*narrative), χρεία (anecdotal apophthegm), γνώμη (maxim…), ἀνασκευή and κατασκευή (refutation and confirmation), κοινὸς τόπος … Continue reading Progymnasmata

Jacoby and FGrHist

Felix Jacoby’s Die Fragmente der griechischen Historiker is a multivolume collection of extracts and quotations of Greek historians whose complete works are known but not extant. Building on the work of Karl Wilhelm Ludwig Müller’s Fragmenta Historicorum Graecorum (1841–1870, abbreviated FHG), Jacoby published the first volume in 1923 and continued with additional volumes until his … Continue reading Jacoby and FGrHist